The nurse told me afterwards that for her their attitude was a pleasant surprise, and that she during study visits involving Swedes never had been bluntly asked: Further, the study aims at finding best practices when it comes to offering young Swedish Somali circumcised women a culturally sensitive counselling in sexual matters. Among other things, this drug is said to cause premature ejaculation: We will work with two Somali women, both with strong networks in the community, who will introduce the study in a culturally sensitive way. Department of Sociology, Lund University. According to a Dutch study, statistically significant lower numbers of cervical cancer related deaths were identified among ethnic minority women when compared to native Dutch women: Hence, there is a need to deepen our understanding of the perceptions of Somali women in the diaspora regarding the prevention of cervical cancer. Much later in the interview the same woman talks about her own first sexual experiences: But my husband said: In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: They behave differently … when it comes to intercourse. The high incidence of cervical cancer deaths may be explained by the lack of preventive cervical cancer care, as HPV vaccinations and Pap smears are not implemented in Somalia [ 13 , 14 ]. Thereafter, an interview phase with older Somali women will be initiated. We strove to make the opening bigger, but it was hard. Now that I know more about it, I keep thinking… No, it was not when I married… no. One self-evident explanation for the lack of indisputable answers is that sexual experience is never purely about physiology what has been removed and what remains of the genitals. Many women expressed similar lines of thought. The girl may adapt very well in Sweden, be well-behaved and successful in school, but as soon as she is a teenager and wants to spend some more time with friends and such things, problems arise. Sophia worries about infecting her husband, but for now he remains something of an abstraction. Like many of her friends, she thought having that type of sex would preserve her virginity for her husband. Suddenly our eyes are opened to one of the cruellest traditions of humanity. However, they can also see the problems in connection with such a dialogue, since they never had it with their own mothers. Johnsdotter, B. This is a fact not denied by anybody, defended by some and criticised by others. And he wants to know that he is the first man for the woman. In this case it does not matter whether the woman is infibulated, clitoridectomised, uncircumcised or otherwise shaped. It directs attention to how a single focus on gender, culture, ethnicity, age, or religion, on its own, is insufficient for studying the relational nature of social forces and localities that shape lived experiences. Integrationsverket [The State Board of Integration].
Also in , the vaccination coverage remained low: The girl may adapt very well in Sweden, be well-behaved and successful in school, but as soon as she is a teenager and wants to spend some more time with friends and such things, problems arise. For those who survive, the rest of the life involves much suffering and no sexual pleasure [Allas, a weekly magazine for women I may not enjoy [sex] the way I could have, maybe there is something better. Suddenly our eyes are opened to one of the cruellest traditions of humanity. Every time I see my husband, I want to [have sex]. We can see traces of this situation in the interviews with Eritrean and Ethiopian women: Pregnancy and childbirth experiences in Somali women resident in Sweden. Often she must be ripped up a bit for the man to be able to penetrate her [ibid.: Practically all interviewees reported having taken part of mass media descriptions of female circumcision during the last decades. When I think about sexuality, then I think that there is probably something I miss there. We are like Swedish women; maybe we are more…active. When you marry, you think it is natural. Edited volume.
She will be… a whore. London, New York: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 23 1: Responses from Sudanese Feminists. I have no problems. How would he make his way through that? When having sex, they do not get a chance to enjoy it. In his view, the sexual experience how people understand and experience sex is a synthesis of the sexual ideology what people know about sex from public discourse and the sexual behaviour what people actually do when having sex. However, the global anti-FGM discourse see Shweder imbues mass media descriptions of this phenomenon in Sweden. It depends on how much they cut away when I was a child. Also in , the vaccination coverage remained low: A Strategy for Eradication. Russell Sage Foundation. We go back to Toronto a few days later. My younger girl also knows quite a lot about it [sexual matters], from TV and papers. We live in a secular country.
Sex is less, the way I know myself. Yes… their sexuality… behaviour… well, they are sexier, you could say. However, the global anti-FGM discourse see Shweder imbues mass media descriptions of this phenomenon in Sweden. But I would prefer them to marry before they have sex. Now that I know more about it, I keep thinking… No, it was not when I married… no. For those who survive, the rest of the life involves much suffering and no sexual pleasure [Allas, a weekly magazine for women Report In this first meeting, most of the issues discussed in this paper will most likely be raised by the participants themselves. A Strategy for Eradication. And that is due to the fact that I know more about it today. It was something that you never forget, but after that it is good.
She concludes, in her preliminary analysis, that infibulation in no way prevents women from enjoying sexual activities, or hinders the possibilities of achieving orgasm. You know that he really wants to. She had the tightest body I have ever seen on a girl! Many women expressed similar lines of thought. Living With Conflicting Culturally Determined Sexual Ideologies Amran thinks that her parents were wrong when they had her circumcised. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology It is a deeply individual phenomenon; influenced by cultural context, social norms, interpersonal relationships, psychological expectations, etc. Things start getting hotter and we eventually strip down. These factors have been linked to a prevalence of mental and physical problems [ 10 , 47 , 48 ]. Participation in Human Papillomavirus HPV vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening Pap smears is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. They are Swedish! There will be an opening [after infibulation] with which the girl can urinate, but which will not give her any sexual satisfaction. Something truly fabulous. My younger girl also knows quite a lot about it [sexual matters], from TV and papers. In Somalia, female genital mutilation FGM is common practice [ 45 ], next to male circumcision [ 46 ]. The second measure - the Human Papillomavirus HPV vaccination - was introduced in , after the bivalent vaccine Cervarix targeting HPV 16 and 18 became available [ 2 ]. You accept it. Gudmundsson, N. Int J Equity Health. She received many reactions from women telephoning the radio station, thanking her for bringing this subject out into the open. Lundgren, Sten, 25 miljoner kvinnor omskurna:
It was when my first child was born that I was opened. She will be… a whore. I understood that, but I also wanted him to understand me. Below is an example: Nobody does. Was it when you got married or was it from reading about it…? Sexual pleasure and satisfaction cannot be easily measured; in the same way that pain cannot be accurately measured. The Somali group is often considered to be the immigrant group most difficult to integrate into the Swedish society, according to official reports e. Is vaccination really necessary? They took something away from me… and that was of no good. Every time I see my husband, I want to [have sex]. Nevertheless, it became one of the most salient themes during interviews with the women. And then he can show that he is a man, that he can open a woman who was stitched up when she was five or six years old. It is our hypothesis that a similar approach can be used to understand the fact that older Swedish Somali women generally do not convey a picture of grief and loss due to circumcision when it comes to sexuality, while it was a major theme in a large part of the interviews with Eritrean and Ethiopian women. Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny, Prisoners of Ritual: In Sweden, there has recently been some debate on whether the FGM Act applies to all citizens or only to people of African descent. He is proud to be the first man to be with his wife. It will be exploratory in the sense that the researchers will adapt to new circumstances and ideas that arise during the study, a core element of qualitative research. And everything comes from the heart and comes from the pain you know. Lately, new data has emerged. University of Pennsylvania Press. This study will be conducted from to
Lund University. Thanks to Richard Shweder for this remark after reading a draft of this paper. Once I asked a woman why she wanted to be sewn up again. Then one night Me Somali girl lets call her Sarah and a couple of buddies from work and their girlfriends go up to Montreal for the weekend. Integrationsverket East African Medical Journal 60 Hovelius, S. When Sophia confronted her boyfriend about her diagnosis he confessed that he tested positive three months before they became sexually involved. The nurse told me afterwards that for her their attitude was a pleasant surprise, and that she during study visits involving Swedes never had been bluntly asked: Those who arrived more recently were welcomed into already existing and well-established networks. With the help of this very simple model, we intend to investigate the relation between contestant discourses and ideologies in this field, their relevance for young Somali women, and what strategies they develop to deal with them. Author information: One of the department heads at the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare defended this situation on national television news, claiming that operations among western women do not violate the law: Sexual pleasure and satisfaction cannot be easily measured; in the same way that pain cannot be accurately measured. Most Eritreans and Ethiopians, in total less than 20, in Sweden, arrived in Sweden in the s. An example of this was a woman who, with a big smile, stated that sex during pregnancy was good: She turned around and we began to kiss and rub crotches together. In the Netherlands, a variety of Somali foundations and associations provide support for social integration [ 44 ]. The wedding, she thinks, will be in September. Is vaccination really necessary?
Many Swedish Somali girls and young women seem to internalise this value of chastity. And that is due to the fact that I know more about it today. Most Eritreans and Ethiopians, in total less than 20, in Sweden, arrived in Sweden in the s. A large majority of the Somalis have been denied access to the labour market and are forced to live on social welfare. Save the Children Sweden. Discourse as used here includes a variety of expressions conveying the views on sexuality: This study will be conducted from to The sensation is reduced. Is vaccination really necessary? It will be exploratory in the sense that the researchers will adapt to new circumstances and ideas that arise during the study, a core element of qualitative research. More than forty interviews with women and men were taped and transcribed. They are Swedish! These factors have been linked to a prevalence of mental and physical problems [ 10 , 47 , 48 ]. A planned project, Sexual Health among Young Somali Women in Sweden, aims at a deeper understanding of the sexual experiences among older Somali women in Sweden, and intends to map the internal discourse in this field. Suddenly our eyes are opened to one of the cruellest traditions of humanity. In our country we were raised to… Those who come from [a district where girls are not circumcised], they are different in their behaviour towards a man or a boy. And they took it away. Ahmadu, Fuambai, Rites and Wrongs: Traditional Circumcision versus Genital Cosmetic Surgery. For more information: The girl may adapt very well in Sweden, be well-behaved and successful in school, but as soon as she is a teenager and wants to spend some more time with friends and such things, problems arise. We go back to Toronto a few days later. We catch a cab headed back to our hotel. Not because she has any specific health problems […]. Intersectionality, which has its roots in social justice within societies, aims to address how social identities like gender and cultural background affect life, and refers to how they constitute interactive relationships that influence each other. And when it comes to young Somali women, many mothers may feel that other aspects than the joys of sexuality are more urgent to communicate: When it comes to the interviews with young women, the next step of the study, we will not focus on their views of sexuality or their personal experiences at all.
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